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A combined pocket size Hyperscope & Psudoscope,
and more.

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Further Reading

Limits of Pseudoscopic Vision

The pseudoscopic enhancement factor of the Pseudoscope is X 5.5, and was considered the practical limit for a device which, by laterally switching the visual inputs, makes unusual vergence demands upon the visual system in order to accommodate for near and far vision. Any viewing conditions which result in double-vision or diplopia, should be avoided, and suggest that the subject being viewed is too close. In most cases, for either device, this will in practice be between 10 to l5ft (3.OOm - 4.50m).

In this context the limits to which eye separation may be extended are reached when fusion of the two retinal images is impossible. Objects may be fused if the disparity of the images is within 30 seconds of arc. Outside 60 seconds of arc there will be no fusion. These limits are known as Panums Fusional Area. Some findings, however, which use flash stimuli to avoid eye movement, suggest that P.F.A. may be more extensive than classical measurements indicate.

  • Blank, Albert A. Metric Geometry in Human Binocular Perception: Theory and Fact. Formal Theories of Visual Perception. Leeuwenberg, 1978.

  • Brewster, David. The Stereoscope. Morgan and Morgan. 1856 Edition.

  • Dewdney, A.K. Computer Recreations. A program for rotating hypercubes induces four-dimensional dimentia. Scientific American, Feb. 1986.

  • Ernst, Bruno. The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher. Ballantine N.Y.C. 1976.

  • Gardner, Martin. Mathematical Carnival. Is it possible to visualize a 4-dimensional figure? Vintage Books 1977.

  • Gibson, J.J. The Perception of The Visual World. Harvard University Press 1950.

  • Wade, Nicholas. Brewster and Wheatstone. Academic Press 1983.

  • Walker, Jearl. The Amateur Scientist. The hyperscope and the pseudoscope aid experiments on three-dimensional vision. Scientific American Nov.1986.